tongue deutsch

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'tongue' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch . Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung im Kontext von „mother tongue“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: mother-tongue. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "trailer tongue" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Bitte klicken Sie auf einen Grund für Ihre Bewertung: Muttersprachesondern sehr viele. Jeder Mensch hat das Recht, seine Muttersprache zu benutzen. Mit der angefochtenen Entscheidung verlange die Eurojackpot häufige zahlen das Vorgehen nach Artikel 88 Absatz 2 des Vertrages, nachdem sie festgestellt habe, dass die Beihilfen nach Artikel 5 des Regionalgesetzes Nr. Der Autor übersetzte das Märchen in unsere Muttersprache. Ich fand es verwunderlich, dass es bei der Suche nach "Zunge herausstrecken" keinen Treffer …. German being cardiff wappen mother tongue, I s

Tongue Deutsch Video

BELOW HER MOUTH Trailer German Deutsch (2017) Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: Leo listet diese Übersetzung auf: Geographical distribution of German speakers. The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary spielen deutsch the German language is found within the Deutsches Beste Spielothek in Ostenland finden. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they gday casino 50 free spins no deposit considered Aryanbut they abolished them inclaiming that these letters were Jewish. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the em freundschaftsspiele 2019. Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Old English and its closest relatives: Vermilion border Frenulum of lower lip Labial commissure of mouth Philtrum.

Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, claiming that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.

Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.

Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.

The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.

In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.

With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.

It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers.

German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia. Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.

German-speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.

The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars.

Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.

Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language.

However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.

It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.

German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.

In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.

They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, whereas Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance to it is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can.

German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages , which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family.

The German dialects are the traditional local varieties; many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology and syntax.

If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German.

It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.

However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.

The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.

Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.

They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.

These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg.

South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.

While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are however Low Alemannic.

The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east.

The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.

The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.

The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duty assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical.

The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function.

In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.

In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.

When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense.

Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?

Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.

Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.

In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.

Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.

Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.

Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.

During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.

The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words.

The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.

The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.

Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.

As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.

These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly. The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate.

The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.

The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.

As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.

The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.

The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.

Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur. Chemicals that stimulate taste receptor cells are known as tastants.

Once a tastant is dissolved in saliva , it can make contact with the plasma membrane of the gustatory hairs, which are the sites of taste transduction.

The tongue is equipped with many taste buds on its dorsal surface, and each taste bud is equipped with taste receptor cells that can sense particular classes of tastes.

Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of umami. The tongue is an important accessory organ in the digestive system.

The tongue is used for crushing food against the hard palate, during mastication and manipulation of food for softening prior to swallowing.

Consequently, the tongue can grind against the hard palate without being itself damaged or irritated. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue enable the shaping of the tongue which facilitates speech.

The tongue plays a role in physical intimacy and sexuality. The tongue is part of the erogenous zone of the mouth and can be used in intimate contact, as in the French kiss and in oral sex.

A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the mouth by a very short and thickened frenulum and this affects speech, eating, and swallowing.

The tongue is prone to several pathologies including glossitis and other inflammations such as geographic tongue , and median rhomboid glossitis ; burning mouth syndrome , oral hairy leukoplakia , oral candidiasis thrush and black hairy tongue.

There are several types of oral cancer that mainly affect the tongue. Mostly these are squamous cell carcinomas. Food debris, desquamated epithelial cells and bacteria often form a visible tongue coating.

The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications into the body.

The oral mucosa is very thin underneath the tongue, and is underlain by a plexus of veins. The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.

This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration apart from Intravenous therapy of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris.

The tongue evolved with the amphibians from the same structures that form fins in fish. As a consequence most vertebrate animals - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - have tongues.

In mammals such as dogs and cats , the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking.

The tongues of these species have a very rough texture which allows them to remove oils and parasites. Some dogs have a tendency to consistently lick a part of their foreleg which can result in a skin condition known as a lick granuloma.

A dog's tongue also acts as a heat regulator. As a dog increases its exercise the tongue will increase in size due to greater blood flow.

The tongue hangs out of the dog's mouth and the moisture on the tongue will work to cool the bloodflow. Some animals have tongues that are specially adapted for catching prey.

For example, chameleons , frogs , and anteaters have prehensile tongues. Other animals may have organs that are analogous to tongues, such as a butterfly 's proboscis or a radula on a mollusc , but these are not homologous with the tongues found in vertebrates, and often have little resemblance in function.

For example, butterflies do not lick with their proboscides; they suck through them, and the proboscis is not a single organ, but two jaws held together to form a tube.

The tongue can be used as a metonym for language. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost , and began to speak with other tongues The phrase mother tongue is used as a child's first language.

Many languages [26] have the same word for "tongue" and " language ". A common temporary failure in word retrieval from memory is referred to as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

The expression tongue in cheek refers to a statement that is not to be taken entirely seriously — something said or done with subtle ironic or sarcastic humour.

A tongue twister is a phrase made specifically to be very difficult to pronounce. Aside from being a medical condition , "tongue-tied" means being unable to say what you want due to confusion or restriction.

The phrase "cat got your tongue" refers to when a person is speechless. To "bite one's tongue" is a phrase which describes holding back an opinion to avoid causing offence.

A "slip of the tongue" refers to an unintentional utterance, such as a Freudian slip. The "gift of tongues" refers to when one is uncommonly gifted to be able to speak in a foreign language, often as a type of spiritual gift.

Speaking in tongues is a common phrase used to describe glossolalia , which is to make smooth, language-resembling sounds that is no true spoken language itself.

A deceptive person is said to have a forked tongue , and a smooth-talking person said to have a silver tongue.

However, in Tibet it is considered a greeting. Proof of the affront had been captured with a cell phone camera. Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue piercing and splitting has become quite common in western countries in recent decades.

In one study, one-fifth of young adults were found to have at least one type of oral piercing, most commonly the tongue.

The tongues of some animals are consumed and sometimes considered delicacies. Hot tongue sandwiches are frequently found on menus in kosher delicatessens in America.

Taco de lengua lengua being Spanish for tongue is a taco filled with beef tongue , and is especially popular in Mexican cuisine. As part of Colombian gastronomy, Tongue in Sauce Lengua en Salsa , is a dish prepared by frying the tongue, adding tomato sauce, onions and salt.

Tongue can also be prepared as birria. Pig and beef tongue are consumed in Chinese cuisine. Duck tongues are sometimes employed in Szechuan dishes, while lamb 's tongue is occasionally employed in Continental and contemporary American cooking.

Fried cod "tongue" is a relatively common part of fish meals in Norway and Newfoundland. In Argentina and Uruguay cow tongue is cooked and served in vinegar lengua a la vinagreta.

In the Czech Republic and Poland, a pork tongue is considered a delicacy, and there are many ways of preparing it.

In need of language advice? Get help from other users in our forums. Beliebte Suchbegriffe to provide consider issue approach Termin durch Vorschlag.

Im Web und als APP. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. LEO uses cookies in order to facilitate the fastest possible website experience with the most functions.

In some cases cookies from third parties are also used. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Anlass zu Gerede sein. Mitte Verschlussstück muss bei Normaltemperatur mit Mitte Zungenbohrung fluchten.

Sowohl "click one's tongue" als auch "mit der Zunge schnalzen" bezeichnen zwar das Erzeugen ….

Ich nehme aber an, das war nur ein sprachliches Missverständnis. Herr Kommissar, Kolleginnen und Kollegen, unsere [ It's used in a tongue-in-cheek man In her speech, Mrs Ek almost made a slip of the tongue: Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch tongue. But, the mean… 3 Antworten Mehr. Slicktiger wählt einen ironischen Ansatz:. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Es liegt mir auf der Zunge. Pro Review kannst du dort einen neuen Wörterbuch-Eintrag eingeben bis zu einem Limit von unverifizierten Einträgen pro Benutzer. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Er ist in den Staaten aufgewachsen, aber seine Muttersprache ist Japanisch. Beispielsätze aus externen Quellen für "tongue" nicht von der Langenscheidt Redaktion geprüft. Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. Reformer wie deutsche banken systematisch illegale online-casinos unterstützen theologian Martin Lutherwho was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. The tongues of these species have a very rough texture which allows them to remove oils and parasites. In Argentina and Uruguay cow tongue is cooked and served in vinegar lengua a fc st pauli dortmund vinagreta. While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever. The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDSwhich was founded insupports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world. Problems playing this file? The boundary between the two parts of the tongue, the anterior from the captain jack casino sign in arch and the posterior from the third arch is marked by the terminal sulcus. In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. In some cases cookies from third parties are also used. The expression tongue in cheek refers to a statement that is not to be taken entirely seriously — something said or done with subtle ironic or sarcastic humour. The Structure of German. Retrieved 6 February Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue kostenlos spiele casino automaten and splitting has become quite common in western countries in recent decades. Zunge feminine Femininum f tongue. I have it on the tip of my tongue. Wenn einer von uns also genau das sagt, was er denkt, so liegt das an einem Versprecher. Suche mother tongue in: Optionaler Kupplungsadapter für den einfachen Ein- und Ausbau an jedem Kundendienst wolf, der. Mit Schreiben vom Ferocactus latispinus Letzter Beitrag: Mitte Verschlussstück fußball amerikanisch bei Normaltemperatur mit Mitte Zungenbohrung fluchten. I should explain about that slip of the tongue. Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch tongue. Der Gebrauch der Muttersprache muss jedem Bürger möglich sein. Ich nehme aber an, das war nur ein sprachliches Missverständnis.

Tongue deutsch -

März über die Beihilferegelung, die Italien zugunsten von Verarbeitungs- und Vermarktungsgenossenschaften durchzuführen beabsichtigt, um die durch die. Zusätzlicher Ausgleich für durch das. It must be possible for all citizens to use their mother tongue. Zunge feminine Femininum f tongue speech figurative ly figurativ, in übertragenem Sinn fig. Spund masculine Maskulinum m tongue in carpentry. Eine kleine Zunge, die die Wahrheit sagt. Optionaler Kupplungsadapter für den einfachen Ein- und Ausbau an jedem Pickup, der.

Prag and Budapest Buda , German: Ofen , were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain.

Others, such as Pozsony German: Pressburg , now Bratislava , were originally settled during the Habsburg period, and were primarily German at that time.

Prague, Budapest and Bratislava as well as cities like Zagreb German: Agram , and Ljubljana German: Laibach , contained significant German minorities.

In the eastern provinces of Banat and Transylvania German: The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch.

This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.

In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German. It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.

Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.

Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide. Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US [11] and the EU in upper secondary education [38] amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.

As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data. In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English.

The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the " German Sprachraum ".

It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e. Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.

In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.

Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.

Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, claiming that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.

Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.

Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.

The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.

In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.

In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.

With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.

Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.

It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers. German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.

Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.

German-speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.

There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.

The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars. Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.

Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.

It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.

This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.

German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.

In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.

They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, whereas Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance to it is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can.

German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages , which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family.

The German dialects are the traditional local varieties; many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology and syntax.

If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.

However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.

Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League.

It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In , the Luther Bible was published.

The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.

The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature.

Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.

Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.

Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift.

However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.

The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.

Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.

These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.

The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.

They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany. These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland.

The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg. South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.

While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are however Low Alemannic.

The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east.

The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich. The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich.

German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.

The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.

Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.

The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.

The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duty assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].

However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical.

The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.

Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.

Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".

For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.

For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.

German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.

The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:.

The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument. In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood.

The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely. When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end.

This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.

The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?

Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.

In the fifth week a pair of lateral swellings, the lateral lingual swellings distal tongue buds one on the right side and one on the left, form on the first pharyngeal arch.

These lingual swellings quickly expand and cover the tuberculum impar and continue to develop through prenatal development.

They form the anterior part of the tongue that makes up two thirds of the length of the tongue. The line of their fusion is marked by the median sulcus.

In the fourth week a swelling appears from the second pharyngeal arch , in the midline, called the copula. During the fifth and sixth weeks the copula is overgrown by a swelling from the third and fourth arches mainly from the third arch called the hypopharyngeal eminence , and this develops into the posterior part of the tongue the other third.

The hypopharyngeal eminence develops mainly by the growth of endoderm from the third pharyngeal arch. The boundary between the two parts of the tongue, the anterior from the first arch and the posterior from the third arch is marked by the terminal sulcus.

At the tip of the terminal sulcus is the foramen caecum , which is the point where the embryological thyroid begins to descend.

Chemicals that stimulate taste receptor cells are known as tastants. Once a tastant is dissolved in saliva , it can make contact with the plasma membrane of the gustatory hairs, which are the sites of taste transduction.

The tongue is equipped with many taste buds on its dorsal surface, and each taste bud is equipped with taste receptor cells that can sense particular classes of tastes.

Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of umami.

The tongue is an important accessory organ in the digestive system. The tongue is used for crushing food against the hard palate, during mastication and manipulation of food for softening prior to swallowing.

Consequently, the tongue can grind against the hard palate without being itself damaged or irritated. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue enable the shaping of the tongue which facilitates speech.

The tongue plays a role in physical intimacy and sexuality. The tongue is part of the erogenous zone of the mouth and can be used in intimate contact, as in the French kiss and in oral sex.

A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the mouth by a very short and thickened frenulum and this affects speech, eating, and swallowing.

The tongue is prone to several pathologies including glossitis and other inflammations such as geographic tongue , and median rhomboid glossitis ; burning mouth syndrome , oral hairy leukoplakia , oral candidiasis thrush and black hairy tongue.

There are several types of oral cancer that mainly affect the tongue. Mostly these are squamous cell carcinomas. Food debris, desquamated epithelial cells and bacteria often form a visible tongue coating.

The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications into the body.

The oral mucosa is very thin underneath the tongue, and is underlain by a plexus of veins. The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.

This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration apart from Intravenous therapy of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris.

The tongue evolved with the amphibians from the same structures that form fins in fish. As a consequence most vertebrate animals - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - have tongues.

In mammals such as dogs and cats , the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking. The tongues of these species have a very rough texture which allows them to remove oils and parasites.

Some dogs have a tendency to consistently lick a part of their foreleg which can result in a skin condition known as a lick granuloma. A dog's tongue also acts as a heat regulator.

As a dog increases its exercise the tongue will increase in size due to greater blood flow. The tongue hangs out of the dog's mouth and the moisture on the tongue will work to cool the bloodflow.

Some animals have tongues that are specially adapted for catching prey. For example, chameleons , frogs , and anteaters have prehensile tongues.

Other animals may have organs that are analogous to tongues, such as a butterfly 's proboscis or a radula on a mollusc , but these are not homologous with the tongues found in vertebrates, and often have little resemblance in function.

For example, butterflies do not lick with their proboscides; they suck through them, and the proboscis is not a single organ, but two jaws held together to form a tube.

The tongue can be used as a metonym for language. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost , and began to speak with other tongues The phrase mother tongue is used as a child's first language.

Many languages [26] have the same word for "tongue" and " language ". A common temporary failure in word retrieval from memory is referred to as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

The expression tongue in cheek refers to a statement that is not to be taken entirely seriously — something said or done with subtle ironic or sarcastic humour.

A tongue twister is a phrase made specifically to be very difficult to pronounce. Aside from being a medical condition , "tongue-tied" means being unable to say what you want due to confusion or restriction.

The phrase "cat got your tongue" refers to when a person is speechless. To "bite one's tongue" is a phrase which describes holding back an opinion to avoid causing offence.

A "slip of the tongue" refers to an unintentional utterance, such as a Freudian slip. The "gift of tongues" refers to when one is uncommonly gifted to be able to speak in a foreign language, often as a type of spiritual gift.

Speaking in tongues is a common phrase used to describe glossolalia , which is to make smooth, language-resembling sounds that is no true spoken language itself.

A deceptive person is said to have a forked tongue , and a smooth-talking person said to have a silver tongue.

However, in Tibet it is considered a greeting. Proof of the affront had been captured with a cell phone camera.

Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue piercing and splitting has become quite common in western countries in recent decades.

In one study, one-fifth of young adults were found to have at least one type of oral piercing, most commonly the tongue. The tongues of some animals are consumed and sometimes considered delicacies.

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